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By Annie Blay August 29, By Joshua David February 25, By Joshua David February 21, By Joshua David February 17, By Joshua David February 13, By Rudly Raphael February 7, The Coloured definition occupied an intermediary political position between the Black and White definitions in South Africa.

It imposed a system of legal racial segregation, a complex of laws known as apartheid. The apartheid bureaucracy devised complex and often arbitrary criteria in the Population Registration Act of to determine who belonged in which group.

Minor officials administered tests to enforce the classifications. When it was unclear from a person's physical appearance whether the individual should be considered Coloured or Black, the " pencil test " was used.

A pencil was inserted into a person's hair to determine if the hair was kinky enough to hold the pencil, rather than having it pass through, as it would with smoother hair.

If so, the person was classified as Black. Sandra Laing is a South African woman who was classified as Coloured by authorities during the apartheid era, due to her skin colour and hair texture , although her parents could prove at least three generations of European ancestors.

At age 10, she was expelled from her all-white school. The officials' decisions based on her anomalous appearance disrupted her family and adult life.

She was the subject of the biographical dramatic film Skin , which won numerous awards. During the apartheid era, those classed as "Coloured" were oppressed and discriminated against.

But, they had limited rights and overall had slightly better socioeconomic conditions than those classed as "Black".

The government required that Blacks and Coloureds live in areas separate from Whites, creating large townships located away from the cities as areas for Blacks.

In the post-apartheid era, the Constitution of South Africa has declared the country to be a "Non-racial democracy".

In an effort to redress past injustices, the ANC government has introduced laws in support of affirmative action policies for Blacks; under these they define "Black" people to include "Africans", "Coloureds" and "Asians".

Some affirmative action policies favor "Africans" over "Coloureds" in terms of qualifying for certain benefits. Some South Africans categorized as "African Black" say that "Coloureds" did not suffer as much as they did during apartheid.

In , the High Court in South Africa ruled that Chinese South Africans who were residents during the apartheid era and their descendants are to be reclassified as "Black people," solely for the purposes of accessing affirmative action benefits, because they were also "disadvantaged" by racial discrimination.

Chinese people who arrived in the country after the end of apartheid do not qualify for such benefits. Other than by appearance, "Coloureds" can usually be distinguished from "Blacks" by language.

Most speak Afrikaans or English as a first language , as opposed to Bantu languages such as Zulu or Xhosa. They also tend to have more European-sounding names than Bantu names.

Historians estimate that between the advent of Islam in CE and the abolition of slavery in the Arabian Peninsula in the midth century, [37] 10 to 18 million Black Africans known as the Zanj were enslaved by Arab slave traders and transported to the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries.

Male slaves were castrated in order to serve as harem guards. The death toll of Black African slaves from forced labor was high. The mixed-race children of female slaves and Arab owners were assimilated into the Arab owners' families under the patrilineal kinship system.

As a result, few distinctive Afro-Arab communities have survived in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries. Distinctive and self-identified black communities have been reported in countries such as Iraq, with a reported 1.

These descendants of the Zanj have sought minority status from the government, which would reserve some seats in Parliament for representatives of their population.

Mazrui et al. Afro-Iranians are people of black African ancestry residing in Iran. During the Qajar dynasty , many wealthy households imported black African women and children as slaves to perform domestic work.

This slave labor was drawn exclusively from the Zanj, who were Bantu -speaking peoples that lived along the African Great Lakes , in an area roughly comprising modern-day Tanzania , Mozambique and Malawi.

The vast majority of these, some ,, are Beta Israel , [46] most of whom are recent immigrants who came during the s and s from Ethiopia.

Unknown numbers of black converts to Judaism reside in Israel, most of them converts from the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Additionally, there are around 60, non-Jewish African immigrants in Israel, some of whom have sought asylum.

Most of the migrants are from communities in Sudan and Eritrea , particularly the Niger-Congo -speaking Nuba groups of the southern Nuba Mountains ; some are illegal immigrants.

Beginning several centuries ago, during the period of the Ottoman Empire , tens of thousands of Zanj captives were brought by slave traders to plantations and agricultural areas situated between Antalya and Istanbul in present-day Turkey.

The Siddi are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan whose members are descendants from the Bantu peoples. Negritos are believed to have been the first inhabitants of Southeast Asia.

Once inhabiting Taiwan, [56] Vietnam, [57] and various other parts of Asia, they are now confined primarily to Thailand, [58] the Malay Archipelago, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Negritos in the Philippines, and Southeast Asia in general, face much discrimination. Usually, they are marginalized and live in poverty, unable to find employment that will take them.

While census collection of ethnic background is illegal in France , it is estimated that there are about 2.

As of , there were approximately , Afro-Germans not including those of mixed ethnicity. This number is difficult to estimate because the German census does not use race as a category.

The Netherlands also has sizable Cape Verdean and other African communities. The term " Moors " has been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims , [65] especially those of Arab or Berber ancestry, whether living in North Africa or Iberia.

Indeed, by the time Isidore of Seville came to write his Etymologies , the word Maurus or "Moor" had become an adjective in Latin, "for the Greeks call black, mauron".

Today, there are an estimated , Afro-Spaniards in Spain. The preferred official umbrella term is "black and minority ethnic" BAME , but sometimes the term "black" is used on its own, to express unified opposition to racism, as in the Southall Black Sisters , which started with a mainly British Asian constituency, and the National Black Police Association , which has a membership of "African, African-Caribbean and Asian origin".

As African states became independent in the s, the Soviet Union offered many of their citizens the chance to study in Russia. Over a period of 40 years, about , African students from various countries moved to Russia to pursue higher studies, including many Black Africans.

Due to the slave trade in the Ottoman Empire that had flourished in the Balkans , the coastal town of Ulcinj in Montenegro had its own black community.

Indigenous Australians have been referred to as "black people" in Australia since the early days of European settlement. Being identified as either "black" or "white" in Australia during the 19th and early 20th centuries was critical in one's employment and social prospects.

Various state-based Aboriginal Protection Boards were established which had virtually complete control over the lives of Indigenous Australians — where they lived, their employment, marriage, education and included the power to separate children from their parents.

A report by Baldwin Spencer states that:. One thing is certain and that is that the white population as a whole will never mix with half-castes After the First World War , however, it became apparent that the number of mixed-race people was growing at a faster rate than the white population, and by fear of the "half-caste menace" undermining the White Australia ideal from within was being taken as a serious concern.

The problem of our half-castes will quickly be eliminated by the complete disappearance of the black race, and the swift submergence of their progeny in the white.

The official policy became one of biological and cultural assimilation : "Eliminate the full-blood and permit the white admixture to half-castes and eventually the race will become white".

The second half of the 20th century to the present has seen a gradual shift towards improved human rights for Aboriginal people.

Activist Bob Maza said:. I only hope that when I die I can say I'm black and it's beautiful to be black. It is this sense of pride which we are trying to give back to the aborigine [ sic ] today.

This nationwide acceptance and recognition of Aboriginal people led to a significant increase in the number of people self-identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander.

Melanesians, along with other Pacific Islanders , were frequently deceived or coerced during the 19th and 20th centuries into forced labour for sugarcane, cotton, and coffee planters in countries distant to their native lands in a practice known as blackbirding.

In Queensland , some 55, to 62, [] were brought from the New Hebrides , the Solomon Islands , and New Guinea to work in sugarcane fields.

Under the Pacific Island Labourers Act , most islanders working in Queensland were repatriated back to their homelands. Many Melanesians have taken up the term 'Melanesia' as a way to empower themselves as a collective people.

Stephanie Lawson writes that the term "moved from a term of denigration to one of affirmation, providing a positive basis for contemporary subregional identity as well as a formal organisation".

John Caesar , nicknamed "Black Caesar", a convict and bushranger with parents born in an unknown area in Africa, was one of the first people of recent Black African ancestry to arrive in Australia.

At the Census, , residents declared that they were born in Africa. This figure pertains to all immigrants to Australia who were born in nations in Africa regardless of race, and includes White Africans.

Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African ancestry, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada. Black Canadians often draw a distinction between those of Afro-Caribbean ancestry and those of other African roots.

The term African Canadian is occasionally used by some Black Canadians who trace their heritage to the first slaves brought by British and French colonists to the North American mainland.

In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States during the antebellum years, aided by people along the Underground Railroad.

Many Black people of Caribbean origin in Canada reject the term African Canadian as an elision of the uniquely Caribbean aspects of their heritage, [] and instead identify as Caribbean Canadian.

There were eight principal areas used by Europeans to buy and ship slaves to the Western Hemisphere. The number of enslaved people sold to the New World varied throughout the slave trade.

As for the distribution of slaves from regions of activity, certain areas produced far more enslaved people than others.

Between and , By the s, nigger had become a pejorative word in the United States. In its stead, the term colored became the mainstream alternative to negro and its derived terms.

After the civil rights movement , the terms colored and negro gave way to "black". Negro had superseded colored as the most polite word for African Americans at a time when black was considered more offensive.

During the American civil rights movement of the s and s, some African-American leaders in the United States, notably Malcolm X , objected to the word Negro because they associated it with the long history of slavery, segregation, and discrimination that treated African Americans as second-class citizens, or worse.

Since the late s, various other terms for African Americans have been more widespread in popular usage. Aside from Black American , these include Afro-American in use from the late s to and African American used in the United States to refer to Black Americans, people often referred to in the past as American Negroes.

In the first years that black people were in the United States , they primarily identified themselves by their specific ethnic group closely allied to language and not by skin color.

Individuals identified themselves, for example, as Ashanti , Igbo , Bakongo , or Wolof. However, when the first captives were brought to the Americas , they were often combined with other groups from West Africa, and individual ethnic affiliations were not generally acknowledged by English colonists.

In areas of the Upper South, different ethnic groups were brought together. This is significant as the captives came from a vast geographic region: the West African coastline stretching from Senegal to Angola and in some cases from the south-east coast such as Mozambique.

A new African-American identity and culture was born that incorporated elements of the various ethnic groups and of European cultural heritage, resulting in fusions such as the Black church and African-American English.

This new identity was based on provenance and slave status rather than membership in any one ethnic group. By contrast, slave records from Louisiana show that the French and Spanish colonists recorded more complete identities of the West Africans, including ethnicities and given tribal names.

The US racial or ethnic classification "black" refers to people with all possible kinds of skin pigmentation, from the darkest through to the very lightest skin colors, including albinos , if they are believed by others to have African ancestry in any discernible percentage.

There are also certain cultural traits associated with being " African American ", a term used effectively as a synonym for "black person" within the United States.

In March , Great Britain , which largely controlled the Atlantic, declared the transatlantic slave trade illegal , as did the United States.

The latter prohibition took effect 1 January , the earliest date on which Congress had the power to do so after protecting the slave trade under Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution.

By that time, the majority of black people in the United States were native-born, so the use of the term "African" became problematic. Though initially a source of pride, many blacks feared that the use of African as an identity would be a hindrance to their fight for full citizenship in the US.

They also felt that it would give ammunition to those who were advocating repatriating black people back to Africa.

In , black leaders called upon Black Americans to remove the title of "African" from their institutions and replace it with " Negro " or "Colored American".

A few institutions chose to keep their historic names, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

African Americans popularly used the terms "Negro" or "colored" for themselves until the late s. The term black was used throughout but not frequently since it carried a certain stigma.

Each time he uses black it is in parallel construction with white ; for example, "black men and white men". With the successes of the civil rights movement , a new term was needed to break from the past and help shed the reminders of legalized discrimination.

In place of Negro , activists promoted the use of black as standing for racial pride, militancy, and power.

In , the civil rights leader Jesse Jackson urged Americans to use instead the term "African American" because it had a historical cultural base and was a construction similar to terms used by European descendants, such as German American, Italian American, etc.

Since then, African American and black have often had parallel status. However, controversy continues over which if any of the two terms is more appropriate.

Maulana Karenga argues that the term African-American is more appropriate because it accurately articulates their geographical and historical origin.

In the U. Recent surveys of African Americans using a genetic testing service have found varied ancestries which show different tendencies by region and sex of ancestors.

These studies found that on average, African Americans have People tend to overestimate how big and strong black men are.

From the late 19th century, the South used a colloquial term, the one-drop rule , to classify as black a person of any known African ancestry.

This practice of hypodescent was not put into law until the early 20th century. Racial definition was more flexible in the 18th and 19th centuries before the American Civil War.

Outside the U. The one-drop rule may have originated as a means of increasing the number of black slaves [] and was maintained as an attempt to keep the white race pure.

They advocated equality for all. The concept of blackness in the United States has been described as the degree to which one associates themselves with mainstream African-American culture , politics, [] [] and values.

Blackness can be contrasted with " acting white ", where black Americans are said to behave with assumed characteristics of stereotypical white Americans with regard to fashion , dialect , taste in music , [] and possibly, from the perspective of a significant number of black youth, academic achievement.

Due to the often political [] [] and cultural contours of blackness in the United States, the notion of blackness can also be extended to non-black people.

Toni Morrison once described Bill Clinton as the first black President of the United States , [] because, as she put it, he displayed "almost every trope of blackness".

The question of blackness also arose in the Democrat Barack Obama 's presidential campaign. Commentators have questioned whether Obama, who was elected the first president with black ancestry, is "black enough", contending that his background is not typical because his mother was white American , and his father was a black student visitor from Kenya.

In July , Ancestry. An indentured servant , he was "bound for life" in after trying to escape. The story of him and his descendants is that of multi-racial America since it appeared he and his sons married or had unions with white women, likely indentured servants and working-class like them.

Their multi-racial children were free because they were born to free English women. Over time, Obama's line of the Bunch family as they became known were property owners and continued to "marry white"; they became part of white society, likely by the early to midth century.

In Virginia, negro former slaves who had maintained their freedom married Native American women. Racism against them and dark skin generally in Mexico.

The first Afro-Dominican slaves were shipped to the Dominican Republic by Spanish conquistadors during the Transatlantic slave trade.

Spanish conquistadors shipped slaves from West Africa to Puerto Rico. Afro-Puerto Ricans in part trace descent to this colonization of the island.

Approximately 12 million people were shipped from Africa to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade from to Of these, The concept of race in Brazil is complex.

A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both of his or her parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from.

Between an individual of unmixed West African ancestry and a very light mulatto individual, more than a dozen racial categories were acknowledged, based on various combinations of hair color , hair texture , eye color , and skin color.

These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest.

In Brazil, people are classified by appearance, not heredity. Scholars disagree over the effects of social status on racial classifications in Brazil.

It is generally believed that achieving upward mobility and education results in individuals being classified as a category of lighter skin.

The popular claim is that in Brazil, poor whites are considered black and wealthy blacks are considered white. Some scholars disagree, arguing that " whitening " of one's social status may be open to people of mixed race , a large part of the population known as pardo , but a person perceived as preto black will continue to be classified as black regardless of wealth or social status.

From the years to , an estimated 3. The territory received the highest number of slaves of any country in the Americas.

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